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All about Cyprus


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    Name of State
    Τhe Republic of Cyprus

    Independence Day: 1st October 1960

    Capital

    Nicosia (Lefkosia)

    The Cyprus Flag



    The ground is white. The map of the Island of Cyprus, in the middle, has the colour of copper. The crest under the island and the olive-tree leaves have the colour of olive-green.

    Location and Area
    Cyprus is the third largest island in the Mediterranean (after Sicily and Sardinia) with an area of 9.251 sq kms , extending 240 kms from east to west and 100 kms from north to south. It is strategically situated in the far eastern corner of the Mediterranean, at the crossroads of Europe, Africa and Asia, and in close proximity to the busy trade routes linking Europe with the Middle East, Russia, Central Asia and the Far East.

    Government
    Executive Power
    Presidential system of government. The President is elected by universal suffrage for a five-year term. Executive power is exercised through an 11-member Council of Ministers appointed by the President. Turkish Cypriots have refused to participate in the government since late 1963.

    Legislative Power
    Multi-party unicameral House of Representatives.
    Voting system: Simple proportional representation. Number of seats 80. 56 are elected by the Greek Cypriot Community and 24 by the Turkish Cypriot Community.
    House members are elected by universal suffrage for a five-year term. Since 1963 the Turkish Cypriots seats remain vacant.

    Judicial Power
    The administration of justice is exercised by a separate and independent Judiciary: the Supreme Court, the Assize Courts and the District Courts.

    District Administration




    Cyprus is divided into six administrative districts. These are: Nicosia, Limassol, Pafos, Larnaka (in the government-controlled areas) and Famagusta and Keryneia (in the occupied areas).

    Local Authorities

    Local government is the responsibility of the Municipal and Community Councils. Municipal Councils provide local government services and administration of the towns and large rural areas, while the Community Councils manage village affairs. The Councils are independent and their members are elected by universal suffrage.

    The Central Bank of Cyprus

    The Central Bank was established in 1963. It is responsible for formulating and implementing monetary and credit policy. It also administers the foreign exchange reserves of the Republic, supervises banks and acts as banker and financial agent of the Government.

    International Relations

    Cyprus is a member of many international organizations including:
    · The United Nations (1960) and its specialized agencies
    · Council of Europe (1961)
    · The Commonwealth (1961)
    · Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (1975)
    · World Trade Organization (1995)

    Cyprus and the European Union (EU)

    Cyprus is a member of the EU since the 1st May, 2004.

    Topography

    There are two mountain ranges running from east to west: the Troodos range, in the southwest, highest peak, Mount Olympos at 1.953 metres; the Kyrenia or Pentadaktylos range in the northeast with its highest Peak Kyparissovounos at 1.024 metres.The central Messaoria plain has a low relief.There are no perennial rivers, only a few springs and streams.

    Climate

    Mediterranean, with mild, wet winters (mean daily minimum 5°C, 41°F), and hot, dry summers (mean daily maximum 36°C, 97°F).

    Flora and Fauna

    Seventeen percent of the island is woodland. The natural vegetation includes forests of evergreen and deciduous trees, shrubs and flowers. The flora comprises about 1.800 species, sub-species and varieties. About 140 or 7% of these are endemic to Cyprus.

    There are also 365 species of birds but only 115 breed on the island. Two species and five sub-species have been classed as indigenous to the area.

    Among the animals the moufflon is the most noteworthy. It belongs to the sheep family and is unique in the world.

    Population

    952.100 (2012):
    71,5% (681.000) Greek Cypriots*
    9,5% (90.100) Turkish Cypriots
    19% (181.000) foreign residents and workers


    * This figure includes the 8.400 (1,1%) (Jan. 2007) ( Maronites, Armenians and Latins who opted to join the Greek Cypriot community. Under the 1960 Constitution they had to choose to belong to either the Greek Cypriot or Turkish Cypriot community.

    Population (Dec 2009)
    Towns

    Nicosia (Lefkosia) (Capital): 336.000
    Limassol (Lemesos): 241.300
    Larnaca (Larnaka): 146.300
    Paphos (Pafos): 90.800
    Ammochostos (Famagusta)* 47.600

    * * Government controlled area.

    Towns under Turkish occupation*
    Famagusta (Ammochostos): 38.960
    Morphou (Morfou): 7.466
    Kyrenia (Keryneia): 3.892

    *Population prior to 1974 Turkish invasion

    Official Languages
    Greek and Turkish
    English is widely spoken

    Religion
    The majority of the Greek Cypriot Community adheres to the Autocephalus Greek Orthodox Church of Cyprus while others are members of the Roman Catholic (Latin and Maronite Communities) and the Armenian Apostolic Church (Armenian Community). The Turkish Cypriot Community adheres to Islam.

    Vital Statistics

    Birth rate 10,9 per thousand (2006)
    Death rate 7,2 per thousand (2006)
    Growth rate 1,6% (2006)
    Life expectancy (males) 77,0 (2005)
    Life expectancy (females) 81,7 (2005)

    History

    The history of Cyprus is among the oldest in the world. The first signs of civilisation traced in archaeological excavations and research, date back 11.000 years to the 9th millennium BC.

    The discovery of copper in Cyrus in the 3rd millennium BC brought wealth to the island and attracted trade from its neighbours. Yet, although geographically placed at the crossroads of three continents – Europe, Asia and Africa – and a meeting point of great world civilisations, Cyprus has developed and for centuries maintained, its own civilisation.

    The Mycenaean and Achaean Greeks settled on the island between the 13th and 11th century BC. They introduced the Greek language and culture, both of which are preserved by Greek Cypriots to this day.

    At the end of the 4th century BC Cyprus became part of the kingdom of Alexander the Great. The Hellenistic period ended in 30 BC when Cyprus became part of Roman Empire until the 4th century AD.

    In 330 AD Cyprus formed part of the Eastern Section of the Roman Empire and later of the Byzantine Empire, and remained so until the 12th century AD. During the Crusades Cyprus was conquered by Richard the Lionheart followed by the Lusignans and the Venetians.

    In 1571 Cyprus was conquered by the Ottomans and in 1878 it was ceded to Britain. In 1914 Britain annexed the island and in 1923, under the Treaty of Lausanne, Turkey relinquished all claims on the island. In 1925 Britain declared Cyprus a crown colony.

    In 1955 the Greek Cypriots launched a liberation struggle against British rule and the island won its independence in 1960.

    CHRONOLOGY
    · Neolithic period 9th - 4th millennium BC
    · Chalcolithic period 4th-mid – 3rd millennium BC
    · Bronze Age mid 3rd millennium – late 2nd millennium BC
    · Iron Age 1st millennium BC
    · Archaic Period 8th – 5th century BC
    · Classical period 480-310 BC
    · Hellenistic Period 310-30 BC
    · Roman period 30 BC -330 AD
    · Byzantine period 330-1191 AD
    · Cyprus Under the crusaders 1191-1192
    · Lusignan (Frankish) period 1192 – 1489
    · Venetian Period 1489-1571
    · Ottoman (Turkish Period) 1571-1878
    · British Period 1878-1960

    Defence
    New
    Since 2000 Cyprus has been contributing to the European Union defence capabilities and is participating in 5 of the 19 ECAP Project Groups, which deal with issues covering the deficiencies of the European Military Capabilties.

    UN Peace-keeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP)

    A UN peace-keeping force, UNFICYP, currently numbering 859 (2006) personnel, has been on the island since 1964. It was established in 1964 following the outbreak of intercommunal conflict in December 1963 and threats of an invasion by Turkey. Its chief task at present, following the invasion of the island in 1974, is to supervise the buffer zone along the ceasefire since Turkey still occupies part of the Republic.

    British Sovereign Base Areas

    The British sovereign military bases at Akrotiri/Episkopi and Dhekelia cover 2,74% of the country’s territory. The bases were retained by Britain under the 1960 Treaty of Establishment between Britain, Greece, Turkey and the Republic of Cyprus.

    Economy

    The free market economy in the government-controlled area has made remarkable recovery since 1974 attributed to, among other factors: the adoption of a market-oriented economic system, sound macroeconomic policies, a dynamic and flexible entrepreneurial community and a highly educated labour force. The economy turned from agriculture to services and light manufacturing. Today, Cyprus is a major tourist destination and a modern economy offering dynamic services with an advanced infrastructure. The per capita income in PPS (Performance Presentation Standards) reached 81,6% of EU 25 member–states average in 2004. Additionally, Cyprus was ranked 29th in the United Nations 2003 Index of Human Development. On 29 April 2005 the Cyprus pound joined the EU Exchange Rate Mechanism II (ERM II). Cyprus joined the eurozone on 1st January 2008.

    %Contribution to GVA (2007)

    Primary (mainly Agriculture): 6,5%

    Secondary (mainly Manufacturing and Construction): 16,7%

    Tertiary: 70,1%

    September, 2008

    Cyprus Photo Gallery



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